Tuesday, December 07 2021

New HIV Treatments

Continuous research has resulted in recent FDA approvals for new HIV treatments in 2016. People with HIV are put on specialized regimens, made up of approved medications that they must take on a daily basis. These regimens are largely referred to as antiretroviral therapy, which is also known as ART. While antiretroviral therapies cannot cure HIV, these medications can reduce the transmission of the virus from one person to another and help those with this disease to live longer, healthier lives. Those on ART regimens begin with three or more HIV medications for different classes. Due to breakthroughs in research, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved new HIV treatments in 2016.

It is crucial to understand these new medications approved to treat HIV have a foundation in years of research and testing. The FDA approved HIV treatments that are combinations of proven medications. These combinations are made up of HIV medicines from one or more drug classes. There are several drug classes that are foundational to the construction of these combination medications. The HIV cells make copies of themselves, which is how the virus spreads, and Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) block reverse transcriptase, one of the enzymes that HIV needs to make copies of itself. One of the NRTIs is emtricitabine, also know as Emtriva. Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs), such as rilpivirine hydrochloride (Edurant), bind to and later alter reverse transcriptase, which is an enzyme HIV needs to make copies of itself.

Other inhibitors also reduce the amount that HIV can make copies of the virus, keeping HIV from spreading and transmitting to others. Medications like darunavir (Prezista) and atazanavir (Reyataz) are Protease Inhibitors (PIs). Integrase Inhibitors, such as elvitegravir (Vitekta), are also invaluable. Pharmacokinetic enhancers, such as cobicistat (Tybost) are used in HIV treatment in combination with other medications in order to boost the effectiveness of HIV treatments. These combination HIV medications are the core of recently approved HIV treatments in 2016.

Combination HIV medicines are commonly used in HIV treatment regimens, and contain two or more HIV medicines from one or more drug classes. Evotaz is a combination of 300 milligrams of atazanavir and 150 milligrams of cobicistat, and is administered in tablet form that can be taken once per day. The most common adverse reactions include nausea and jaundice. Prezcobix combines 800 milligrams of darunavir and 150 mg of cobicistat, and can be taken as a tablet once per day. Doctors recommend that Prezcobix be taken with food. Patients who take this combination of medications need to have their liver function carefully monitored. Other known side effects may include skin reactions, headache, diarrhea, rash, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Two more groundbreaking HIV treatments for 2016 include Genvoya and Odefsey. Genvoya contains 150 mg elvitegravir, 150 mg cobicistat, 200 mg emtricitabine, and 10 mg tenofovir alafenamide fumarate. Genvoya should be taken every day with food, and side effects may include liver problems, lactic acidosis, fat loss or gain, nausea, kidney problems, and bone issues. Odefsey is a combination of 200 mg emtricitabine, 25 mg rilpivirine, and 25 tenofovir alafenamide. Taken once each day, this HIV medication should be ingested with food. Common side effects include skin rash, liver problems, depression or mood changes, and insomnia.